STD stands for sexually transmitted diseases that include a group of infections transmitted by means of human sexual behaviour.
Consequences of STDs
Diseases caused by STDs can affect fertility, that is why it is extremely important to treat them promptly. . Infections with few or no symptoms and untreated infections can increase infertility or they can cause problems during pregnancy (miscarriage, premature birth), birthing and can also infect newborns. We try to settle doubts for children or family members living in the same household and deal with ungrounded fears of being infected as well.
What causes STDs?
Main causes of spreading are changing partners frequently, not using a condom (in the case of vaginal intercourse, not in case of oral sex), sexual irresponsibility and lack of information. In most of the cases STDs are spread by those who are not aware that they are infected, but still have an active sexual life. Infection spreads with close bodily contact, sexual intercourse.
Latency time is varied: they can be present without any symptoms for a few days or a few years . The foetus can be infected by the infected mother in the uterus or during birth (e.g. syphilis, gonorrhoea), HIV-1, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Hepatitis B (HBV, Chlamydia trachomatis D-K, HSV 2 and HSV 1, HPV, Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae).
In case of viral infections:
- Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV 1-2),
- Hepatitis B (HBV),
- Hepatitis C (HCV),
- genital herpes (HSV 1-2),
In case of bacterial infections: syphilis.
How the scan takes place?
We take a swab from genital discharges for culture and molecular biology PCR testing. This way infection with no symptoms can be diagnosed for the following:
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae
- Chlamydia trachomatis,
- Ureaplasma urealyticum,
- Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium,
- Trichomonas vaginalis,
- Gardnerella vaginalis,
- Herpes simplex virus,
- Human papilloma virus,
- B group Streptococcus
- other bacteria, fungi.
Taking these tests is recommended for those sexually active people who are endangered because of their sexual relationships or are in new relationships and want to stop using condoms. It is also useful to be informed about possible latent infections before getting pregnant, because they can affect fertilization and the pregnancy itself.
It is really important to discover infections without symptoms, because treatable infections (bacterial infections: Chlamydia, mycoplasma infections, syphilis, gonorrhoea) can be treated and further spreading can be stopped.
In the case of HIV the patient can have a good quality of life with the appropriate treatments.
Herpes and hepatitis infections can be controlled with medication and HPV should be continuously monitored.
Inflammation of the urinary tracts and genitals
Inflammation of the urinary tracts and genitals are not always caused by sexual intercourse. The defending mucous membrane and the skin flora often get weaker, so bacteria and fungi can settle in sexually non-active people as well. There might be other medical problems in the background that should be discovered. In case of women the modification of the vaginal flora balance can cause problems (burning, itching, foul odour discharge).
Testing genital inflammatory problems is a process of many steps. It is useful to have a partner tested and treated as well, even if they have no symptoms or problems at all to avoid infecting ourselves again and have a ping pong infection.